Chronic cystitis with bladder disorders

Types of cystitis

Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis (BPS/IC)

The cause of this disorder is still not clear but different hypotheses include subclinical infection, inflammation, mast cell activation and autoimmune mechanisms.2

BPS/IC is a chronic inflammation of the bladder wall. It is not believed to be caused by bacteria and does not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.3

BPS/IC is found in all countries around the world and in all races. It is mainly found in women but many men may in fact be underdiagnosed due to a misdiagnosis.4

Recurrent Bacterial Cystitis (RBC)

Bacterial cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder caused by bacteria entering the bladder via the urethra.

Escherichia Coli are the most common type of bacteria responsible for causing urinary tract infections (UTI).3

If repeated recurrent bacterial infections occur i.e. one infection every three months or more frequently, this is classed as recurrent bacterial cystitis (RBC).3

Bacteria may be introduced into the urinary system for many reasons.3

  • Hygiene
  • Catheters
  • Sexual activity
  • Postmenopausal changes

    After the menopause, when oestrogen levels decline, it is quite common for women to develop infections. These changes reduce the normal defences of the urethra and allow harmful bacteria to grow.

  • Diabetes

    The urine of diabetics can contain a lot of sugar, encouraging bacteria to grow.

  • Pregnancy

    Pressure from the uterus may result in incomplete emptying of the bladder, thus encouraging bacteria to grow.

  • Prostate

    In men, an enlarged prostate prevents the bladder from emptying completely.

  • Kidney/Bladder Stones

    These may cause urine to stagnate in the urinary system, which encourages bacteria to grow.

Radiation-induced cystitis (RIC)

Haemorrhagic cystitis is a frequent complication in patients receiving5

  • Radiation therapy to the pelvic area (radiation-induced cystitis (RIC))
  • Administration of treatments directly into the bladder (e.g. bacillus Calmette-Guérin)

Haemorrhagic cystitis has been defined as ‘the presence of sustained haematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms (e.g. dysuria, frequency, urgency) in the absence of active tumour and other conditions’.5